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Supported Membrane Templates (SMrT) are membranes organized in a variety of shapes resting on a passivated and PEG-cushioned glass surface. The most easily distinguishable forms are a planar supported bilayer and membrane nanotubes. Lipids in an organic solvent are spotted on a PEGylated glass coverslip and allowed to dry. The coverslip is then placed inside a flow cell and hydrated with buffer flow, which transforms the dry lipid into a planar lipid bilayer and an array of membrane tubes. Membrane tubes in these templates represent intermediates in a typical budding reaction and can be used to test candidate proteins to catalyze fission. Read-outs on membrane fission are clear and unambiguous (see movie) and their amenability to fluorescence microscopy allows the fundamental analysis of membrane fission pathways as well as discovery of protein machines that remodel membranes.
Read more in these papers:
A novel fluorescence microscopic approach to quantitatively analyse protein-induced membrane remodelling.
Pucadyil TJ. J Biosci. 2018 PMID: 30002262
Dar S, Kamerkar SC, Pucadyil TJ. Nat Protoc. 2017 PMID: 28125102
SUPported bilayers with Excess membrane Reservoir (SUPER) templates are silica beads with a single lipid bilayer wrapped around but organized in folds. They are prepared by forming supported bilayers by the rupture and fusion of anionic liposomes on the silica surface in presence of high salt (see scheme below). They can be used in a variety of sedimentation-based applications from monitoring lipid-protein interactions to pulldowns to assaying membrane budding and fission. The excess reservoir can be visualized by adding them to a glass coverslip - once they settle, binding to the glass surface causes the excess reservoir to spill out and form a bilayer patch that looks like a sunny side-up.
Read more in these papers:
Pucadyil TJ, Schmid SL. Cell. 2008 PMID: 19084268
Pucadyil TJ, Schmid SL. Biophys J. 2010 PMID: 20643070
Neumann S, Pucadyil TJ, Schmid SL. Nat Protoc. 2013 PMID: 23288321
Sequential affinity chromatography (SAC)
Biochemical reconstitution requires rapid purification of large numbers of proteins to homogeneity. We achieve this by sequential affinity chromatography (SAC).
The gene for the protein of interest is engineered with a 6xHis tag at one end and a StrepII tag at the other end. Proteins are expressed in a system of choice and then purified according to the following scheme using an FPLC or a peristaltic pump. This consistently gives us highly pure and full length proteins in as little as ~ 1 hr.
SDS-PAGE showing results of
protein purification using SAC.
PLiMAP: proximity labeling-based identification of membrane-associated proteins
Biochemical reconstitution of membrane-associated phenomena requires analysing the intrinsic lipid binding properties of proteins. We manage this by PLiMAP.
Read more in this paper:
Jose GP, Gopan S, Bhattacharyya S, Pucadyil TJ. Traffic 2019 PMID: 31846132